Introduction Water is the precious gift of God on the earth. Life exists on the earth because of the availability of water. Itself being tasteless, odorless and colorless, it adds taste, color and nice smell in the life of living beings on the earth. It is found everywhere and known as life. It takes nothing from us but gives life to us. It has no shape but takes the shape of container we store it. We find it everywhere in rivers, seas, tanks, wells, ponds, etc but we lack clean drinking water. Three-fourth part of the earth is full of water however we need to conserve water as there is very less percentage of clean water. Without water life is not possible on the earth. All the living beings like human, animals, plants, etc need water to grow, develop and live. Water is the only source of all lives here. We need water in all the walks of life from morning till night like drinking, cooking, bathing, washing clothes, watering plant, etc. People working in different fields need water for different purposes such as farmers need water to grow crops, gardeners to water plants, industrialists for industry work, electricity plants to generate hydro-electricity, etc. So, we should save clean water for the wellness of our future generations and healthy life of water and wildlife animals. People at many places of the world are suffering water scarcity or completely lack of water in their region Water is the basic requirement of our body and thus life. Water is also named as ‘life’ because of being important element for all the living beings. Noting can survive without water on the earth. Three-fourth part of the earth is water however only 2% of the water is usable for us. At some places in India, people face water scarcity and draught condition whereas, in other places there is plenty of water available. So, the people living in areas with plenty of water must realize its importance and save water. Why to Save Water We are living in the time when we need to save clean water and use it according to our use only. People at many places in India and other countries are facing a huge water scarcity. They have to depend on the government water supply by tanks or some natural water reservoirs at long distance. They have to go for a long distance on daily basis to arrange drinking water. They better understand the value of water than the people who have sufficient water supply in their areas. The situation of lack of water becomes very terrible for the people who don’t have enough water to fulfill their basic needs of drinking, bathing, washing, etc. India is one of the countries worldwide facing huge level water scarcity today. Places in India like Rajasthan and some parts of Gujarat are facing water scarcity where women and girls of the houses cover a long distance on bare foot to just get a pot of water. In some cities like Bangalore people have to buy water bottles worth Rs. 25 to Rs. 30 to drink clean water. People face more problems during summer months when the daily need of water increases. Recently, it is studied that around 25% urban population lacks availability to clean drinking water. In some areas, the privatization of water bodies is the main reason of water scarcity. How to Save Water There are different methods we can follow to save clean drinking water to deal with the water scarcity. Rain water harvesting is one of the most effective and suitable method among save water techniques. Afforestation is also best method as it reduces the surface runoff and recharges the ground water. It promotes underground water conservation. By practicing such methods we can conserve more water naturally and ensure the availability of it for future generations. We should take a pledge and make a lifelong motto of “Save water, save life, save earth”. 71% of the earth surface is covered with water. It is vital to all forms of life found on the earth. It is found below the ground, oceans, large water bodies, and small water reservoirs. Water is also available in many forms like vapor, clouds, precipitation, surface water, glaciers, polar ice caps, etc. The life cycle of water runs all around on the earth continuously through evaporation, precipitation, runoff, rain, etc. Apart from this, we lack clean drinking water in many areas of the country. Water scarcity is the lack of access to the safe water. Slowly, it is being hard to manage the quality of water for the people who lack it. In some areas, lack of water is the daily problem. People have to suffer a lot the scarcity of water. It takes a lot of efforts, cost and time to manage the access of water to all especially in the areas of water scarcity. It is a big issue to many countries worldwide. People having sufficient water do not understand the importance of water and they waste a lot water on daily basis in many unnecessary activities. As we all know that around 2 or less percent water is fresh water on the earth and fit for human consumption. Most of the water is locked up in glaciers, snow, ice and others are in the form of open source. The main source of freshwater is groundwater because of the natural filtering system. The matter of freshwater availability raises the question about water security as well as people’s access to it at affordable price. The depth of ground water is increasing with the huge climatic changes in the environment. Clean water insecurity at many places has increased due to the draught and natural disasters without season. In the coming decades the demand of clean water supply will increase because of populations growth, need of agriculture and industry will expand, negative climatic changes, etc. It’s time to join our hands together and take effective actions regarding save water as much as possible. There are different ways we can save huge water on daily basis. Water saving can be done through water conservation methods. Saving water and protective it from being dirty has been very necessary to meet current and future demand. Climate change is another factor of water scarcity. As water demands will increase in future, it should be saved to ensure its availability for future generations. If we do not take positive action, the condition will be more embarrassing when the rate of lack of fresh water from an ecosystem exceeds to its natural replacement rate. By minimizing the need of water to human; freshwater habitats, local wildlife and migrating birds can be saved. We should bring many positive changes in our habits and activities to save even a drop of water. There are three things (oxygen, water and food) without which we cannot live on the earth. But the most precious thing is oxygen, then water and food because we cannot live without oxygen even for a second. Clean water is also a most important thing as we need it in our all the daily routine activities and especially to drink. Already the percentage of clean water was less but due to the industrial activities our clean water under the ground is getting dirty and polluted. Because of the lack of fresh mineral water everywhere, it has been started selling on the local shops for many years. And, people are ready to buy it worth 30 to 35 Rs because they know that simple tap water may not be clean especially at the public places. Increasing rate of people’s carelessness (regarding water saving and safety) and population, it is sure that our future generations must suffer the shortage of clean water. Very less percentage of earth’s water is suitable for drinking and many people (at the place of water shortage) survive on very less water per day. Percentage of Clean Water Three-fourth of the earth is covered by water from which 97% water is ocean water means salt water and completely unfit for our consumption. Left percentage (about 2.7 percent) is fresh drinking water however around 70 percent of this is available as ice sheets and glaciers in Antarctica. So, we only have one percent of fresh water which is fit for human use. We need to practice water conservation on urgent basis in order to make the presence of this precious resource in our life. We also need to stop contaminating the drinking water resources through direct passage of sewage, toxic chemicals and other wastes into it. Increasing rate of population, deforestation and rapid urbanization is increasing the need of clean water and leading to the water pollution and scarcity. Sources making Clean Water Dirty The sources which are polluting the underground water are land runoff, drainage, seepage, sewage, atmospheric deposition, precipitation, industrial waste, etc. Such wastes get deposited into lakes, rivers, coastal waters, wetlands, etc and meet to the large water bodies and ground water too. Other water spoiling sources are use of excess fertilizers, insecticides, herbicides, detergents, soaps, etc from agricultural lands and residential areas. Acid drainage from abandoned mines and industries involved in making oil, grease and toxic chemicals are also involved in making water dirty and polluted. Such nonpoint sources are the leading cause of water quality problems. Simple Ways to Save Water There are various simple ways which we can use on daily basis and save gallons of water daily. Following are save water techniques which we must use to save water at home and other places: We should use shower heads with low-flow (also called as energy-efficient shower heads), low-flush toilets and composting toilets (instead of conventional western toilets as they use large volumes of water) or dual flush toilets (it uses very less water than others). Keep the tap close while doing hand wash, tooth brush, face wash, washing dishes, etc. Collect rain water during rainy season to use in toilet flush, watering plants, sprinkle in garden, etc. Using raw water like sea water or non-purified water in toilet is also good. We should be habitual of reusing or recycling waste water. We should promote rainwater harvesting, using high-efficiency clothes washers, weather-based irrigation controllers, garden hose nozzles, low flow taps in wash basins, swimming pool covers, automatic faucet, etc for water conservation. Water saving techniques should also be given priority in the commercial areas as it is a big area where gallons of water can be saved on daily basis. Water saving techniques in the business areas are like waterless urinals, waterless car washes, infrared or foot-operated taps, pressurized water brooms, cooling tower conductivity controllers, water-saving steam sterilizers (in hospitals and health care units), rain water harvesting, water to water heat exchangers, etc. Agriculture field is also a vast area where we can save more water on daily basis if we follow water saving techniques. We can use overhead irrigation for crop irrigation (using center-pivot or lateral-moving sprinklers), minimize evaporation, runoff or subsurface drainage, etc. Use of green manures, recycling of crop residues, mulching, animal manure, etc in the field improves the soil organic matter which again increases the water holding capacity and ability to absorb water (during torrential rains) of the soil. Water saving techniques is also promoted at the social and community level by the municipal water utilities or regional governments through the use of common strategies like public outreach campaigns pay higher price for increasing water use, restrictions on use of clean water for outdoor activities like lawn watering, floor cleaning, car washing, etc. There should be universal metering for water supply to each home just like electricity. This facility is only available some UK households areas and urban Canadian homes. It is estimated by the US Environmental Protection Agency that water metering is an effective technique which alone can reduce water consumption by 20 to 40% on daily basis. The growth of more water-efficient crops adopting less irrigation should be promoted as only crop irrigation takes around 70% of the world’s fresh water. Conclusion Water saving techniques should be promoted among people living in the societies, communities, villages including business sections as they are the main water users in rough manner. Farmers, children, and women should be taught properly about how to use and save water in efficient manner. They must understand the value of water in their life. Clean water scarcity is not a problem of one country or continent; it is a global issue which needs to be solved globally by increasing awareness about it among people worldwide.
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